A review of steel corrosion by liquid lead and lead–bismuth

The liquid lead-bismuth eutectic (LEB) corrosion resistance can be attributed to inferior wettability of interface between the LEB and multiphase ceramic coatings, faint shear force produced by ...

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Lead-Cooled Fast Reactors | SpringerLink

Abstract. This chapter describes fast neutron reactors utilizing either of two so-called Heavy Liquid Metal Coolants; namely, lead (Pb) and lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE), both having significantly higher densities and boiling temperatures than sodium.

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Lead-bismuth eutectic - Wikipedia

Lead-Bismuth Eutectic or LBE is a eutectic alloy of lead (44.5%) and bismuth (55.5%) used as a coolant in some nuclear reactors, and is a proposed coolant for the lead-cooled fast reactor, part of the Generation IV reactor initiative.

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Liquid metal cooled reactor - Wikipedia

However, because lead has a high melting point and a high vapor pressure, it is tricky to refuel and service a lead cooled reactor. The melting point can be lowered by alloying the lead with bismuth, but lead-bismuth eutectic is highly corrosive to most metals used for structural materials. Tin

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Lead-cooled fast reactor - Wikipedia

The lead-cooled fast reactor is a nuclear reactor design that features a fast neutron spectrum and molten lead or lead-bismuth eutectic coolant. Molten lead or lead-bismuth eutectic can be used as the primary coolant because lead and bismuth have low neutron …

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A loop for circulating liquid lead-bismuth mixtures ...

CIRCULATING LIQUID LEAD-BISMUTH MIXTURES: CORROSION STUDIES AND OPERATION. Iowa State University of Science and Technology Ph. D., 1960-Enginearing, metallurgy University Microfilms, Inc., Ann Arbor, Michigan

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Book & Book Chapters: Corrosion by Liquid Lead and Lead ...

liquid lead and lead-bismuth eutectic by natural convection, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 2005, 48 (13) 2601-2612. [63] Jinsuo Zhang*, Ning Li, Analytical solution on the transient corrosion/precipitation in non-

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Diffusivity, activity and solubility of oxygen in liquid ...

1. Introduction. Liquid lead and lead–bismuth eutectic (LBE) alloy (44.1 at.% Pb and eutectic temperature of 398 K) are the candidate coolant materials for accelerator driven systems (ADS) as they can also serve as spallation targets to produce high-energy neutrons .LBE has been extensively used as a coolant in compact nuclear reactors of submarines in Russia .

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Long-Term Behaviors of Oxide Layer in Liquid Lead–Bismuth ...

This article is Part II of the systematic study on the long-term behaviors of the protective oxide layer in liquid lead–bismuth eutectic (LBE) systems. The model developed in Part I is applied to analyze the kinetics of the growth of the oxide layer formed on cladding materials (HT-9 and T-91 steel) of an LBE-cooled small modular reactor.

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(PDF) Polonium evaporation from liquid lead–bismuth ...

The equilibrium evaporation of mercury from dilute solutions in liquid lead–bismuth eutectic (LBE) was studied in argon atmosphere. Mercury present as impurity in LBE was evaporated and detected ...

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Bismuth - Specific Heat, Latent Heat of ... - Nuclear Power

Latent Heat of Vaporization of Bismuth is 104.8 kJ/mol. Specific Heat. Specific heat, or specific heat capacity, is a property related to internal energy that is very important in thermodynamics.The intensive properties c v and c p are defined for pure, simple compressible substances as partial derivatives of the internal energy u(T, v) and enthalpy h(T, p), respectively:

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Lead and Lead-bismuth Eutectic - Reactor Coolant

Lead and Lead-bismuth Eutectic – Reactor Coolant. Lead, lead-bismuth eutectic, and other metals have also been proposed and occasionally used.The lead-cooled fast reactor is a nuclear reactor design that features a fast neutron spectrum and molten lead or lead-bismuth eutectic coolant. Lead-Bismuth Eutectic or LBE is a eutectic alloy of lead (44.5%) and bismuth (55.5%).

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OECD iLibrary | Handbook on Lead-bismuth Eutectic Alloy ...

Heavy liquid metals such as lead or lead-bismuth have been proposed and investigated as coolants for fast reactors since the 1950s. More recently, there has been renewed interest worldwide in the use of these materials to support the development of systems for the transmutation of radioactive waste.

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LIQUID LEAD-BISMUTH EUTECTIC AS A COOLANT IN …

various liquid metals and alloys, mostly with lead and lead-bismuth eutectic, LBE (55.5 w. t.% Bi, 45.5 w. t.% Pb) [5]. Figure 1. A scheme of a Liquid-Metal-cooled Fast Reactor (LMFR) [7] This leads to a large amount of data that has been obtained from nuclear application, where LBE has been used as a coolant in liquid-metal-cooled

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Lead-bismuth liquid metal: Lubrication behaviors ...

Jul 15, 2019· Lead-bismuth eutectic liquid metal (LBE) is the primary coolant for the advanced liquid-metal nuclear reactor, and clarification of its lubrication behavior and mechanism at elevated temperature is of importance. In this paper, a self-mated high-temperature steel sliding-pair and a pin-on-disc configuration are selected to evaluate the ...

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Chinese lead-bismuth test reactor starts up - World ...

China's first lead-bismuth alloy zero-power reactor - Qixing (Venus) III - achieved first criticality on 9 October, the China Institute of Atomic Energy has announced. The milestone marks the start of China's core physics experiments into liquid metal cooled fast reactors.

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Removal and Containment of High-Level Radioactive Polonium ...

Removal and Containment of High-Level Radioactive Polonium From Liquid Lead-Bismuth Coolant - Volume 506 - E.I. Yefimov, D.V. Pankratov, S.V. Ignatiev. Please note, due to essential maintenance online purchasing will be unavailable between 6:00 and 11:00 (GMT) on 23rd November 2019. We apologise for any inconvenience.

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ToF-SIMS investigation of absorption of lead and bismuth ...

Mar 31, 2019· The time of flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (ToF-SIMS) technique was employed to investigate the interaction of liquid lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) atoms with the surface and subsurface of a T91 steel taking into account the contribution of plastic deformation.

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A review of steel corrosion by liquid lead and lead–bismuth

For liquid lead–bismuth alloys, the corrosion rate increases almost linearly with activity of bismuth in the liquid alloy. 2. Without corrosion inhibitor added, Mo has a high corrosion resistance to the liquid metal and can be used as the contained materials. The corrosion of carbon steels, low-alloy steels and stainless steels is severe, and ...

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THE LEAD-BISMUTH EUTECTIC (Technical Report) | OSTI.GOV

Available information on the liquid lead-bismuth eutectic is reviewed. A compilation of physical, thermodynamic, and nuclear properties is included. Corrosion, corrosion inhibition, and handling of the eutectic are discussed. (R.J.S ...

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Thermophysical Properties of Lead-Bismuth Eutectic Alloy ...

composed of monatomic lead and bismuth and diatomic bismuth components, and that liquid LBE is a non-ideal mix-ture of lead and bismuth. Recommended equations were also presented for the transport properties and surface tension of liquid LBE. KEYWORDS: lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) alloy, thermophysical properties, thermodynamic state, equation of

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Natural Convection and Oxygen Transfer of Liquid Lead ...

The present study carries out numerical analysis of the coupled natural convection and oxygen transfer of liquid lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) for calibrating low concentration level oxygen sensors. The analysis is performed on the 3-D cylindrical container, where the fluid in low Rayleigh number for the purpose of sensor calibration. ...

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Lead-cooled fast reactor - Wikipedia

The lead-cooled fast reactor is a nuclear reactor design that features a fast neutron spectrum and molten lead or lead-bismuth eutectic coolant. Molten lead or lead-bismuth eutectic can be used as the primary coolant because lead and bismuth have low neutron absorption and relatively low melting points.

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Equilibrium Evaporation Behavior of Polonium and Its ...

Equilibrium Evaporation Behavior of Polonium and Its Homologue Tellurium in Liquid Lead-Bismuth Eutectic Shuji OHNO1; 2, Yuji KURATA, Shinya MIYAHARA1, Ryoei KATSURA3 and Shigeru YOSHIDA4 1Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4002 Narita, Oarai-machi, Higashi-ibaraki-gun, Ibaraki 311-1393, Japan 2Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195, Japan

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Long-Term Behaviors of Oxide Layer in Liquid Lead–Bismuth ...

Feb 07, 2014· This article is Part II of the systematic study on the long-term behaviors of the protective oxide layer in liquid lead–bismuth eutectic (LBE) systems. The model developed in Part I is applied to analyze the kinetics of the growth of the oxide layer formed on cladding materials (HT-9 and T-91 steel) of an LBE-cooled small modular reactor.

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Physical Chemistry of Corrosion and Oxygen Control in ...

Corrosion of steel in liquid lead (Pb) and lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) is an important factor when applying these materials as a process medium. At low oxygen content of the liquid-metal phase, the degradation results mainly from the dissolution of the steel constituents, which may significantly decrease in the presence of a continuous scale

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Chinese lead-bismuth test reactor starts up - Nuclear ...

Oct 22, 2019· The China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE) announced on 9 October that China's first lead-bismuth alloy zero-power reactor - Qixing (Venus) III – had achieved first criticality, marking the start of key experiments into liquid metal cooled fast reactors.

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LIQUID METAL BISMUTH?! - YouTube

Jun 05, 2017· I really enjoy playing with this stuff, just make sure to be very careful when melting it down and always use the right equipment with adult supervision! Hope y'all enjoyed!

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lead bismuth liquid - torrexconsulting.ch

Lead, lead-bismuth eutectic, and other metals have also been proposed and occasionally used.The lead-cooled fast reactor is a nuclear reactor design that features a fast neutron spectrum and molten lead or lead-bismuth eutectic coolant. Lead-Bismuth Eutectic or LBE is a eutectic alloy of lead (44.5%) and bismuth (55.5%).

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The Density and Thermal Expansion of Eutectic Alloys of ...

The lead-bismuth eutectic is an advanced liquid-metal heat-transfer agent for transport and spaceborne fast-neutron power reactors, in particular, in strategic submarines [1], and the lead-lithium eutectic is regarded as one of the basic tritium-breeding materials of the blanket of ITER fusion reactor [2]. State

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